Not until after the first churches were constructed and Christianity represented no longer a sect but the ruling state religion, could Christian art began to develop. The symbolic element, which had been borrowed from the ancient world, became less prominent, and the sacred personages of Christian art receive their fixed types. This development is represented in Manuscript Illumination. According to Medieval historian, Julia De Wolf Addison, "In these early works the whole tremendous power of the church is fully expressed. The heads and faces lack individuality, and are outlined and emphasized with hard, unsympathetic black lines; the colouring is sallow and the expression stolid. Any attempt at delineating emotion is grotesque, and grimacing. The beauty, for in spite of all these drawbacks there is great beauty"
Carolingian art centered around Manuscript Illumination, which thrived in Charlemagne's empire. After Christianity had spread throughout the length and breadth of the empire, the emperor created his own artistic institutions and his own system of patronage. Charlemagne desired to re-establish the art and cultural accomplishments of classical Rome. He supported numerous artistic and cultural endeavors, including monastic centers that were established to create and reproduce illuminated manuscripts. These early artists were Franks who had modeled their style after the works of Greek, Roman and Middle Eastern artists. They strove to capture the mysterious and mystical nature of early Christianity. The church made use of a wide range of art-works for spiritual comfort and instruction.
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