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Bernardo Daddi (1290-1348) Italian, Florentine, Early Renaissance

Virgin and Child c.1340
      


About The Renaissance Period

Artists of the Renaissance were elevated in social standing and their art was no longer looked upon as simple handicrafts, but as divinely inspired creations. The spirit of an era awoke, revitalized with knowledge and creativity. Although art still served a specific functions, which were primarily religious, painters added more of their individual spirit and personal vision to their creations. John Ruskin, famous art historian stated, "The art of any country is the exponent of its social and political virtues . The art, or general productive and formative energy, of any country, is an exact exponent of its ethical life. you can have noble art only from noble persons, associated under laws fitted to their time and circumstance."

The major painters of the Renaissance were not only artists but men of great genius who gave the world their great intellectual gifts. Florentine and Venetian painting were both formed by extraordinary personalities. These independent creative geniuses tackled mathematical, artistic and philosophical problems of the highest interest, and presented solutions that have never lost their value. The sense of humanism pervading renaissance painting is still palpable. The painters touched on a multitude of  issues regarding the human condition - death, love, reason, religion, universal morality, social problems.

Until the Middle Ages men regarded themselves as following the Good Shepherd, and art consequently did not recognize the individual in particular. In the structure and position of  the figures, as in their expression, a general and uniform type of beauty prevailed. The early Renaissance marks the victory of individualism and the uncompromising prominence of the individual.  According to Renaissance historian Walter Pater  "Here, artists and philosophers and those whom the action of the world has elevated and made keen, do not live in isolation, but breathe a common air, and catch light and heat from each other’s thoughts. There is a spirit of general elevation and enlightenment in which all alike communicate. The unity of this spirit gives unity to all the various products of the Renaissance; and it is to this intimate alliance with the mind, this participation in the best thoughts which that age produced, that the art of Italy in the fifteenth century owes much of its grave dignity and influence.."

Key Descriptive Words  and Phrases associated with the Renaissance Movement rebirth, rediscovery of the classical world, City-state, Humanism, Humanist, Francesco Petrarch, Reform, The Prince, Theocracy, The Inquisition, Human Reasoning,  publication of Della Pittura, a book about the laws of mathematical perspective for artists, sfumato, chiaroscuro, linear perspectiveHeliocentric Theory, vanishing point, Savonarola, spiritually significant,  illuminated manuscriptidealized biblical themes, scriptorium, emotion, illuminator,  Age of Discovery, axonometric drawing, curiosity about the natural world, mythology,  realistic use of colours and lightBonfire of the Vanities, Old Testament stories, ethereal and foggy backgrounds, Gospel parables, The Blackdeath, romanticized landscapes,  Christian symbolism. Paradise

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Important Italian Sienese Artists Listed Alphabetically

Taddeo di Bartolo (1362-1422) Italian, Sienese, Early Renaissance

Giovanni Antonio Bazzi (1477-1548) Italian, Sienese, High Renaissance

Domenico di Pace Beccafumi 1486-1551) Italian, Sienese, Renaissance

Duccio di Buoninsegna (1255-1319) Italian, Sienese, Early Renaissance

Giovanni di Paolo di Grazia (1403-1483) Italian, Sienese, Early Renaissance

Sano di Pietro (1406-1481) Italian, Sienese, Early Renaissance

Ambrogio Lorenzetti (1290-1348) Italian, Sienese, Early Renaissance

Pietro Lorenzetti (1280-1348) Italian, Sienese, Early Renaissance

Coppo di Marcovaldo (1225-1274) Italian, Sienese, Early Renaissance

Simone Martini (1280-1344) Italian, Sienese, Early Renaissance

Lippo Memmi (1285 -1361) Italian, Sienese, Early Renaissance

Giovanni di Paolo (1399-1482) Italian, Sienese, Renaissance

Sassetta (1394-1450) Italian, Sienese, Early Renaissance

Sodoma (1477-1548) Italian, Sienese, High Renaissance

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